Title: Basic Electronics

The Author: Debashis De

File format: PDF

Volume: 836 pages

File size: 13 MB

Book content:

Semiconductor Fundamentals

Crystalline Materials
Basis of Classification: Metals, Semiconductors, and Insulators
Intrinsic Semiconductors
Extrinsic Semiconductors
Electrical Conduction Phenomenon
The Continuity Equation
Hall Effect

Diode Fundamentals

Formation of the p–n Junction
Energy Band Diagrams
Concepts of Junction Potential
Modes of the p–n Junction
Derivation of the I–V Characteristics of a p–n Junction Diode
Linear Piecewise Models
Breakdown Diode
Special Types of p–n Junction Semiconductor Diodes
Applications of Diode

Diode Circuits

Analysis of Diode Circuits
Load Line and Q-Point
Zener Diode as Voltage Regulator
Rectifiers
Clipper and Clamper Circuits
Comparators
Additional Diode Circuits

BJT Fundamentals

Formation of p–n–p and n–p–n Junctions
Transistor Mechanism
Energy Band Diagrams
Transistor Current Components
CB, CE and CC Configurations
Expression for Current Gain
Transistor Characteristics
Operating Point and the Concept of Load Line
Early Effect

BJT Circuits

Biasing and Bias Stability
Calculation of Stability Factors
CE, CB Modes and Their Properties
Small-Signal Low-Frequency Operation of Transistors
Equivalent Circuits Through Hybrid Parameters as Two Port Network
Transistor as Amplifier
Expressions of Current Gain, Input Resistance, Voltage Gain and Output Resistance
Frequency Response for CE Amplifier with and without Source Impedance
Emitter Follower
Darlington Pair
Transistor at High Frequencies
Real-Life Applications of the Transistor

Field-Effect Transistor

The Field-Effect Transistor
Construction of the JFET
Biasing of the JFET
Current-Voltage Characteristics
Transfer Characteristics of the JFET
Construction and Characteristics of the MOSFET
Complementary MOS
Real-Life Applications of the FET

FET Circuits

FET Biasing
FET as an Amplifier
Electrical Parameters of the FET
AC Equivalent Circuit for Small-Signal Analysis
High-Frequency MOSFET Model
Additional FET Circuits
Comparison Between the FET and the BJT

Special Semiconductor Devices

Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR)
Triode AC Switch (TRIAC)
Diode AC Switch (DIAC)
Unijunction Transistor (UJT)
Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)
Real-Life Applications

Feedback Amplifier

Conceptual Development Through Block Diagrams
Properties of Negative Feedback
Calculations of Open-Loop Gain, Closed-Loop Gain and Feedback Factors
Topologies of the Feedback Amplifier
Effect of Feedback on Gain, Input and Output Impedance
Practical Implementations of the Feedback Topologies
Sensitivity
Bandwidth Stability
Effect of Positive Feedback

Fundamentals of Integrated Circuit Fabrication

Fundamentals of Integrated Circuits
Types of Integrated Circuits
Advantages and Disadvantages of Integrated Circuits
Scale of Integration
Crystal Growth and Wafer Preparation
Epitaxial Growth
Oxidation for Isolation
Photolithography for Pattern Transfer
Etching for Design
Diffusion for Doping
Ion Implantation for Doping
Metallization for Interconnection
Testing for Reliability
Packaging Protection
IC Symbols
Fabrication Steps for Different Circuits

Operational Amplifier

Properties of the Ideal Operational Amplifier
Specifications of IC 741C
Operational Amplifier and its Terminal Properties
Applications of the Operational Amplifier

Oscillators

Classifications of Oscillators
Circuit Analysis of a General Oscillator
Conditions for Oscillation: Barkhausen Criterion
Tuned Oscillator
Crystal Oscillator
Real-Life Applications of Oscillators

Digital Electronic Principles

Number System
Conversion of Number System
Boolean Algebra
Logic Gates
De Morgan’s Theorem
Simplification of Boolean Expression
Logic Gate Circuits
Real-Life Applications of Digital Circuits

Electronic Instruments

Components of the Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope
Cathode-Ray Tube
Time-Base Generators
Measurements Using the Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope
Types of Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope
Sweep Frequency Generator
Function Generator
Sine Wave Generator
Square Wave Generator
AF Signal Generator

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