## Title: Basic Electronics

**The Author: Debashis De**

File format: PDF

Volume: 836 pages

File size: 13 MB

**Book content:**

**Semiconductor Fundamentals**

Crystalline Materials

Basis of Classification: Metals, Semiconductors, and Insulators

Intrinsic Semiconductors

Extrinsic Semiconductors

Electrical Conduction Phenomenon

The Continuity Equation

Hall Effect

**Diode Fundamentals**

Formation of the p–n Junction

Energy Band Diagrams

Concepts of Junction Potential

Modes of the p–n Junction

Derivation of the I–V Characteristics of a p–n Junction Diode

Linear Piecewise Models

Breakdown Diode

Special Types of p–n Junction Semiconductor Diodes

Applications of Diode

**Diode Circuits**

Analysis of Diode Circuits

Load Line and Q-Point

Zener Diode as Voltage Regulator

Rectifiers

Clipper and Clamper Circuits

Comparators

Additional Diode Circuits

**BJT Fundamentals**

Formation of p–n–p and n–p–n Junctions

Transistor Mechanism

Energy Band Diagrams

Transistor Current Components

CB, CE and CC Configurations

Expression for Current Gain

Transistor Characteristics

Operating Point and the Concept of Load Line

Early Effect

**BJT Circuits**

Biasing and Bias Stability

Calculation of Stability Factors

CE, CB Modes and Their Properties

Small-Signal Low-Frequency Operation of Transistors

Equivalent Circuits Through Hybrid Parameters as Two Port Network

Transistor as Amplifier

Expressions of Current Gain, Input Resistance, Voltage Gain and Output Resistance

Frequency Response for CE Amplifier with and without Source Impedance

Emitter Follower

Darlington Pair

Transistor at High Frequencies

Real-Life Applications of the Transistor

**Field-Effect Transistor**

The Field-Effect Transistor

Construction of the JFET

Biasing of the JFET

Current-Voltage Characteristics

Transfer Characteristics of the JFET

Construction and Characteristics of the MOSFET

Complementary MOS

Real-Life Applications of the FET

**FET Circuits**

FET Biasing

FET as an Amplifier

Electrical Parameters of the FET

AC Equivalent Circuit for Small-Signal Analysis

High-Frequency MOSFET Model

Additional FET Circuits

Comparison Between the FET and the BJT

**Special Semiconductor Devices**

Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR)

Triode AC Switch (TRIAC)

Diode AC Switch (DIAC)

Unijunction Transistor (UJT)

Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)

Real-Life Applications

**Feedback Amplifier**

Conceptual Development Through Block Diagrams

Properties of Negative Feedback

Calculations of Open-Loop Gain, Closed-Loop Gain and Feedback Factors

Topologies of the Feedback Amplifier

Effect of Feedback on Gain, Input and Output Impedance

Practical Implementations of the Feedback Topologies

Sensitivity

Bandwidth Stability

Effect of Positive Feedback

**Fundamentals of Integrated Circuit Fabrication**

Fundamentals of Integrated Circuits

Types of Integrated Circuits

Advantages and Disadvantages of Integrated Circuits

Scale of Integration

Crystal Growth and Wafer Preparation

Epitaxial Growth

Oxidation for Isolation

Photolithography for Pattern Transfer

Etching for Design

Diffusion for Doping

Ion Implantation for Doping

Metallization for Interconnection

Testing for Reliability

Packaging Protection

IC Symbols

Fabrication Steps for Different Circuits

**Operational Amplifier**

Properties of the Ideal Operational Amplifier

Specifications of IC 741C

Operational Amplifier and its Terminal Properties

Applications of the Operational Amplifier

**Oscillators**

Classifications of Oscillators

Circuit Analysis of a General Oscillator

Conditions for Oscillation: Barkhausen Criterion

Tuned Oscillator

Crystal Oscillator

Real-Life Applications of Oscillators

**Digital Electronic Principles**

Number System

Conversion of Number System

Boolean Algebra

Logic Gates

De Morgan’s Theorem

Simplification of Boolean Expression

Logic Gate Circuits

Real-Life Applications of Digital Circuits

**Electronic Instruments**

Components of the Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope

Cathode-Ray Tube

Time-Base Generators

Measurements Using the Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope

Types of Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope

Sweep Frequency Generator

Function Generator

Sine Wave Generator

Square Wave Generator

AF Signal Generator

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