Book title: Fiber Optic Communications Fundamentals and Applications

Authors: Shiva Kumar and M. Jamal Deen

File Format: PDF

Language: English

Volume: 573 pages

File Size: 15.76 MB

About the book:

The field of fiber-optic communications has advanced significantly over the last three decades. In the early days, most of the fiber’s usable bandwidth was significantly under-utilized as the transmission capacity was quite low and hence, there was no need to apply techniques developed in non-optical communication systems to improve the spectral efficiency. But in recent times there is a lot of advancement came in this field. This book talks about A to Z of Fiber Optic technology.

This book grew out of our notes for undergraduate and graduate courses on fiber-optic communications.

Content of the book:

Electromagnetics and Optics

Coulomb’s Law and Electric Field Intensity
Ampere’s Law and Magnetic Field Intensity
Faraday’s Law
Maxwell’s Equations
1-Dimensional Wave Equation
Power Flow and Poynting Vector
3-Dimensional Wave Equation
Reflection and Refraction
Phase Velocity and Group Velocity
Polarization of Light

Optical Fiber Transmission

Fiber Structure
Ray Propagation in Fibers
Multi-Mode and Single-Mode Fibers
Modes of a Step-Index Optical Fiber
Pulse Propagation in Single-Mode Fibers
Comparison between Multi-Mode and Single-Mode Fibers
Single-Mode Fiber Design Considerations
Dispersion-Compensating Fibers (DCFs)

Lasers

Basic Concepts
Conditions for Laser Oscillations
Ruby Laser and Semiconductor Lasers
Wave–Particle Duality
Laser Rate Equations
Review of Semiconductor Physics
Direct and Indirect Band-Gap Semiconductors
Semiconductor Laser Diode
Laser Rate Equations and Distributed-Feedback Lasers

Optical Modulators and Modulation Schemes

Line Coder
Pulse Shaping
Power Spectral Density of Polar and Unipolar Signals
Digital Modulation Schemes: ASK, PSK, FSK, DPSK
Optical Modulators
Optical Realization of Modulation Schemes
Partial Response Signals: Alternate Mark Inversion
Multi-Level Signaling

Optical Receivers

Photodetector Performance Characteristics
PN Photodiode
pin Photodetector (pin-PD)
Schottky Barrier Photodetector
Metal–Semiconductor–Metal Photodetector
Photoconductive Detector
Phototransistor
Avalanche Photodetectors
Advanced Photodetectors
Direct Detection Receivers: Optical Receiver ICs
Receiver Noise and Signal-to-Noise Ratio, SNR
Coherent Receivers: Single-Branch and Balanced
Polarization Effects

Optical Amplifiers

Optical Amplifier Model
Amplified Spontaneous Emission in Two-Level Systems
Low-Pass Representation of ASE Noise
System Impact of ASE: Beat Noise, Total Mean and Variance, Polarization Effects, Amplifier Noise Figure, Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers
Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier
Comparison of EDFA and SOA
Raman Amplifiers

Transmission System Design

Fiber Loss-Induced Limitations
Balanced Coherent Receiver
Dispersion-Induced Limitations
ASE-Induced Limitations
Impact of Amplifier Spacing, Direct Detection Receiver and Coherent Receiver

Performance Analysis

Optimum Binary Receiver for Coherent Systems
Homodyne Receivers
Heterodyne Receivers
Synchronous Detection: PSK, OOK, FSK
Asynchronous Receiver: OOK, FSK
Comparison of Modulation Schemes with Heterodyne Receiver
Direct Detection: OOK, FSK, DPSK
Comparison of Modulation Schemes with Direct Detection

Channel Multiplexing Techniques

Polarization-Division Multiplexing
Wavelength-Division Multiplexing: Components and Experiments
OFDM Principle
Optical OFDM: Transmitter and Receiver, Experiments
Time-Division Multiplexing and Demultiplexing
OTDM Experiments

Nonlinear Effects in Fibers

Origin of Linear and Nonlinear Refractive Indices
Fiber Dispersion
Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation
Self-Phase Modulation
Combined Effect of Dispersion and SPM
Interchannel Nonlinear Effects
Intrachannel Nonlinear Impairments
Intra- versus Interchannel Nonlinear Effects
Theory of Intrachannel Nonlinear Effects
Nonlinear Phase Noise: Linear and Gordon–Mollenauer
Stimulated Raman Scattering: Time Domain Description

Digital Signal Processing

Coherent Receiver
Laser Phase Noise
IF Estimation and Compensation
Phase Estimation and Compensation: Phase Unwrapping
CD Equalization : Adaptive Equalizers
Polarization Mode Dispersion Equalization
Digital Back Propagation: Multi-Span DBP

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