DIY Lithium Batteries How to Build Your Own Battery Packs

Book Title: DIY Lithium Batteries How to Build Your Own Battery Packs

Written by: Micah Toll

File Format: PDF

Language: English

Volume: 131 pages

File Size: 7.77 MB

About the Book:

Just like electric vehicles, home batteries are also becoming increasingly popular. A lithium battery in the back of your closet or hidden in your garage can power a house for days in the event of a power outage. They are also great for storing energy that has been generated on-site, such as from solar panels or wind turbines. Home battery storage systems like the Tesla Powerwall are great OEM products, but you can still build your own custom system suited for your unique needs. All you need is the battery know-how!
Drones, wearables, backup batteries, toys, robotics, and countless other applications are all ripe for custom DIY lithium batteries. This book will teach you how to design and build lithium batteries for all of these uses and more. Prepare ourselves, because, by the time you finish this book, you are going to be full of knowledge and rearing to go out and power the world!

Content of the Book:

Uses for lithium batteries
How lithium battery cells work

Form factors of lithium cells

Pouch cells
Prismatic cells
Cylindrical cells

Types of lithium cells

Lithium-ion (Li-ion)
Lithium Manganese Oxide (LiMn2O4 or li-manganese)
Lithium Cobalt Oxide (LiCoO2, li-co, or li-cobalt)
The Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (LiNiMnCoO2 or NMC)
Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (LiNiCoAlO2, NCA, or NCR)
Lithium polymer (li-poly or lipo or RC lipo)
The Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4)
General lithium battery cell summary

Sourcing lithium battery cells

Buying new cells
Using salvaged cells
Buying used electric vehicle battery modules

Cell ratings

Maximum discharge rate
C rate
Maximum charge rate
Maximum number of cycles

Combining lithium battery cells to make battery packs

Increasing voltage using series connections
Increasing capacity using parallel connections
Combining series and parallel connections


The danger of short circuits
The effect of temperature on lithium cells
Handling and storage

Battery Management Systems

Why would a battery need a BMS?
Disadvantages of a BMS
Connecting a BMS

Construction methods

Physically holding cells together
Joining cells in series and parallel
Cell-level fuses

Battery layout and design

Maximum continuous current
Choosing appropriate cells
Current rating
Cycle life
Grouping cells in a battery
Making different battery shapes

Making battery connections

Safety considerations
Cell matching
Cell alignment and containment
Bolted connections
Wire connector connections
Spot welded connections
Series vs parallel connections
Connecting the BMS
Connecting charge and discharge wires
And Connecting the balance wires
Adding a balance connector
Performing final quality and performance checks

Sealing the battery

Hard cases
Heat shrink
Cooling issues

Charging lithium batteries

Constant Current, Constant Voltage charging
Charging with a BMS
And Charging without a BMS
Charging temperature

Increasing cycle life

Charge to a lower maximum voltage
Discharge to a higher minimum voltage
Charge and discharge at lower currents
Keep cells cool

Disposing of old lithium batteries

Example battery building projects

5V backup battery and USB device charger
12s RC lipo electric skateboard battery
10s (36 V) electric bicycle triangle battery
38s (120 V) LiFePO4 prismatic cell electric car battery
14s (52 V) 18650 home energy storage battery
4s (14.8 V) 18650 RC drone or FPV battery

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